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Learning a second language: It’s easy when we’re young but harder as we grow older

By Deke Castleman and David Morrill

Children pick up language easily. Their nervous systems make new neural connections at lightning speeds. Computer simulations of neural activity in the early years of life look like all the cars in Los Angeles squeezed onto the Indianapolis Speedway racing at 200 miles an hour. Indeed, babies’ brains are capable of acquiring, simultaneously, two and even three languages. Of course, it takes a rich and supportive home environment for the optimal outcome, but any baby can do it.

Children pick up second languages quickly.

Children pick up second languages quickly.

As children, we learned language simply by absorbing the sounds, words, phrases, and sentences that we heard, the same as practically everything else we learned about the world as kids. We were responding to sounds in the womb. Up until about four months of age, all language, to us, was music, with, perhaps, a few familiar tunes.

Then we began to discover the units of speech, where one word ends and another begins. The first word we recognized was our own name, distinguished by sounds and stress patterns. Then more words started coming in: “mama” and “papa,” for example.

Then we started attaching meanings to words. At six months, babies can use the word “mama” for their own mothers, distinguishing them from other women.

At 12 months, we started recognizing words as labels for objects, like “hands” and “crackers” and “Elmo.”

Then we learned to combine words into sentences. By about age three, we could string five, six, even seven words together. And we kept building and building on our language skills until, at around age 10, we were fully capable of non-childish everyday first language, such as English.

Think of that: thousands upon thousands of hours, spread over ten years, of hearing and using English to get a firm grasp on it. And that’s when our minds were pure sponges for it.

In elementary school, we were introduced to parts of speech and learned to use words, such as “noun” and “verb” and “object,” as labels for other words. And we built on those concepts. We learned more words for words (grammar, after all, is mainly labeling words to understand the architecture of language, similar to all the materials used in construction of a skyscraper) until, finally, around the eighth grade, about age 14, most of us took our last formal course in grammar. And that’s the last time most of us gave much thought to our first language — its words, rules, organization, and logic.

Learning a second language at an older age

Then there’s the little matter of learning a language with hardening arteries, creaky joints, gray hair, and shrinking brains.

One indication of how easily you’ll pick up a second language in later life is how well you did in your first language. If English, for example, was your worst subject, or you did well but hated it, chances are you’ll resist Spanish, if only unconsciously, or you won’t learn as quickly as other people. But if you liked writing, if you enjoyed parsing and diagramming sentences, if you got off on grammar, if you loved vocabulary, if your mother had to yell at you to “put down the damn book and watch some television!”, chances are you’ll have an easier time of it.

Either way, unlike kids, adults don’t have thousands of hours to learn a second language. We’re not in our Wonder Bread years. Far from being sponges, our heads are more like coconuts: hammer hard on the outside and sloshy on the inside.

On the other hand, we do possess certain advantages over children. So never let anyone tell you, and never try to convince yourself, that you’re too old to learn a new language. Most people can. (And, by the way, people who play musical instruments, like those who were good at English, seem to have an easier time of it.)

Older folks have the advantage of not having to start from scratch to learn a second language. We already have a first language, so we can use what we know of the old one to organize our learning of the new one.

Many elements of language can be categorized, analyzed, and assimilated by adults more rapidly than children. We’re well-equipped with the knowledge, experience, and analytic ability to recognize what’s already understandable, as well as what’s completely unintelligible, compared to our first language. And we can focus on the similarities and the differences to accelerate our learning. That’s called “explicit learning,” basically, what’s done in a classroom or tutoring session and what you do at home when you study. The other half of second-language acquisition is called “implicit learning,” during which it all becomes operational.

Language isn’t just a set of sounds and words and phrases and rules that you can memorize for simple meanings. Far from it. Language is a complex system for communicating — and more fundamentally, for structuring thought. Certainly, the most important way to assimilate into a new culture is to learn its language.

And vice versa: The most important way to learn a new language is to assimilate into the culture that uses it.

And that’s why, if you’ve already expatriated to Ecuador or anywhere in Latin American, and haven’t begun to tackle the native language, or if you’re planning to immigrate and are wondering just how to go about learning the language, you’re in luck, big time. Here, you’re swimming in a sea of Spanish. The language is all around you. And it’s not going away.

But you have to be ready for it. You have to want to learn it. You have to be prepared to put in a lot time and effort. And as we’ve said, it won’t be easy. It won’t happen quickly. It will require hard work and diligence. It will entail frustrations and setbacks. You will be intimidated and embarrassed. But you have to dive in, somewhere, sometime.

About the Author

A California native who spent most of his life in north Florida, David
Morrill has been a newspaper and magazine editor, columnist, and book
and art reviewer. He was also a public relations agency owner and
university administrator. He has lived in Cuenca since 2004.

  • Explain one thing: how does not knowing Spanish adversely affect the population? Seems like it just makes it easier for them to rip you off.


    Very timely but also very well written. Thanks Guys.


    Further: I have been here 7 years and do not speak the language. Why? Probably because I have not been sure I would stay. Okay, I’ll admit it. I’m a bit lazy about such things at age 75. However, having just come from a hospital stay and surgery here in Cuenca can assure you that life here could be considerably enhanced by proficiency in the language. It is a bit pathetic for a guy with my education to be relying on taxi drivers and the kind neighbor to assist me through the most basic of challenges. In a way, I commend the government for attempting to smooth out the conflict arena but also, in the process, will make life for all Gringos more productive. Do I look forward to the learning challenge? No! Do I get it? Of course. Also keep in mind that such an action could not occur in a country much larger than Ecuador. In a sense, we are fortunate that the government even gives a twit for the harmony of the folks at this level. Enough.

  • I doubt either one of the editors of this book knows Spanish very well on a comprehensive basis. It is nothing personal, but after interacting with many expats in this community, I have learned most people are FOC.when it comes to evaluating their Spanish language knowledge.


    I would like to challenge Lee Dubbs to offer standarized Spanish proficiency exams in his school, so that we can put the bullsh*ters to the test. This isn´t about mandatory testing, but expecting people to walk the talk.

  • David Akins

    When we moved to Cuenca in 2011, my wife and I took a Spanish course through the local chamber of commerce. Deke Castleman was the teacher. He was probably about a year ahead of us in regard to his knowledge of the Spanish language at the time. That did not mean he was not a good teacher. As a matter of fact, he was probably about the best teacher I have ever had in any course. We were very disappointed that he did not return to teaching through the chamber. He has a very good way of getting the point across and encouraging people to learn. I don’t know where his knowledge level lies now, but he certainly helped me get a good start on learning the language.

    While I am not fluent, I found I knew the language better and was certainly more interested and/or dedicated to learning it than most others in Cuenca that I had met. My problem is that I have two companies that I run (no, I am not the typical retiree who has moved to Ecuador) and my time was limited. Nonetheless, I consider myself a low Intermediate speaker of the language. I did not understand others who were retired and spent their time watching TV or regurgitating the news or conspiracy theories instead of enriching their lives by attempting a new language.

    We have since had to return to the U.S. (and its stresses and expense) for family reasons. We had planned to stay in Cuenca several more years, but ‘life happens’. We prefer the stress free environment which is provides. It certainly provides much opportunity to enrich one’s life through learning of Spanish. Knowing the language helps you to learn more about the culture, mix with the local population, and prevent yourself from getting into too much trouble or being taken advantage of through ignorance of the language and/or culture.

    I thought the above article was very plausible. I suppose I am the exception to the rule of being good in English (which I am not) but somehow can learn Spanish. Aptitude tests in the Marine Corp 40+ years ago showed learning a language was my best aptitude, but returning to rural Georgia as a civilian did not present the need to learn Spanish at the time. Ironically, many rural Georgia towns now have significant Spanish speaking people. Actually, in taking the Spanish courses I have taken (but mostly self-study courses), I have learned much of the English rules I did not learn while growing up. I still don’t particularly care to learn the English rules, but it does help in the learning of Spanish.

    I would encourage people to not shoot themselves in the foot before trying to learn a new language. Don’t assume you are too old to learn. Many people have had repetitive jobs that did not require regular habits of learning new skills and thus may need to practice ‘learning’ again. Do it! Don’t give up before starting. Yes, it will probably be difficult at first. Persistence is more productive than having natural ability in the majority of things that we do.